Research shows that each year about 30% of people in developed countries suffer from foodborne diseases .
In poorer countries , foodborne and waterborne diseases kill millions , mostly children every year . In the markets here , food items are exposed to flies , rain , wind and dust . Unsafe food which could lead to foodborne illness can also happen from what we do or what we don’t do in our kitchen .


We will consider four ways to make our foof safe .

(1) Shop wisely : unless you grow your own food your first contact with the food you eat will likely be at the market or suppermarket . Plan your route , that is from which market you buy your food stuffs . Buy non-perishable
food first , then at end of your shopping buy those from the fridges and freezers . If you are to buy hot food , pick it up just before you return home .
Try to purchase fresh food when possible . Go early to the market and pick them up when the sun has not affected them (vegetable stuffs)
Always buy fresh meat slaughtered that day and you can freeze the ones you don’t use . Inspect your food items and check if the food item or meat is free from unusual odours . If the food item is prewrapped , inspect the packaging . Damaged packages can allow poisonous bacteria to enter the food . It is necessary to check the expjration date printed on packaged foods . Experts warn that even if expired foods looks good , tastes good or smells good , it can still make you sick .
Don’t put meat or fish in the same bag with other food items to avoid possible contermination . If it will take longer than 30 ninutes to return home , put chilled or frozen foods into an insulated bag or in other way make sure it is kept cool . Teach your children to check the expiration date of any food item such as snacks before they buy them .

(2) keep it clean : Just as a surgeon protects
his patient by washing his hands , sterilizing his instruments and maintaining a clean operating room , you can also protect your family by keeping yourself , your kitchen and your food clean .
The public health agency of Canada states that hands spread an estimated 80 % of common infections like the common cold and flu . Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before eating and after using the toilet and also when you prepare meal . Keep your kitchen clean .
The sites in the household that were conterminated with the most fecal bacteria are the sponge and the dishcloth in the kitchen , therefore change dish clothes frequently and use hot soapy water or disinfectant to clean kitchen surfaces . It is not always easy but we make sure they are always available to keep our kitchen and homes clean .
Before produce is sold , it may have been contaminated by unclean water , animal fecal matter or other raw food items . Even if you plan to peel fruits or vegetables , rinse them thoroughly to remove harmful bacteria . There
is no rush to avoid had l known .

(3) prepare and store food carefully : Food
that is prepared carelessly warrants caution as it can be harmful or even deadly . Learn to prepare and store food carefully . Store food in the refrigerator., in a microwave or under cold water in a package that will not leak .
According to world health organization , proper cooking kills almost all dangerous micro-organisms . When cooking food especially soup or stew , make sure that it reaches a temperature of at least 70 degres celsius . Cooked food should not be left at room temperature for too long , so serve it soon or even immediately to avoid spoilage . You can keep hot meat in an oven set at approximately 93 degrees celsius . Freeze your
food in small portions to make it easy ti defrost and if you store left overs in the fridge , eat them within three to four days .
At a resturant , you have to trust someone else to prepare your food , so how can you protect your family when eating out ? .
Find out by reading further

(4) Be observant when eating out : If you choose to eat at a resturant someone else purchases the ingredients , cleans the kitchen and cooks the food . Nevertheless you can decide where you eat , what you eat and how you pack any food that you take home .
If you walk into a resturant for the first time , look arround to see if the tables , tablecloths , utensils and servers are clean and tidy . If not leave and look for another resturant . In some lands health officials routinely inspects and grade resturants and then post their results for the public to read
If you have eaten and have leftover , go directly home after your meal and store them in the fridge
If you take the four steps outlined in this post , you can make your food safer and remain healthier and stronger.


When a man and woman decide when to have children and when not to , they can choose one of the several methods to prevent the woman from becoming pregnant .
These are called methods of birth control or contraception .


This is the complete avoidance of sex until when you are ready for pregnancy . This method is widely emphasised by the churches or religious groups .There are many benefits to this . You will remain healthy without worries of getting infection and other associated problems of sex . If one can be able to maintain this standard , you are totaly secure .


This is the most widely used method . While a a woman is breast feeding her baby she is less likely to become pregnant., especially when breast milk is the only food her baby receives . The woman’s body naturally produces a substance which prevents pregnancy . In addition , breast feeding keeps the baby healthy and happy start in life .


These are oral medicines used by women to control birth when taken correctly . The pills is one of the most effective method of avoiding pregnancy . However , it should taken under the suppervision of a doctor .


Other methods used for preventing pregnancy are the use of condoms . This is a narrow rubber. or latex bag that men wear on their penis while having sex . Usually it works well to prevent Aids and other sexually transmitted diseases . Direction for use can be seen on the leaflet inside the pack .


The use of diaphram or intrauterine device (IUD) .This is a plastic or sometimes metal object that trained doctor or midwife places inside the womb . While in the womb , it prevents pregnancy .
In some women it causes pains and discomfort , but for others it gives no trouble at allo
Emergency contraception can also be applied . This is the use of contraceptive pills within 3 days of having sex .
Another method worth mentioning here is the RHYTHM method . This method is not a very sure way but it costs nothing . It is more likely to work for women whose periods come very regulary, more or less every 28 days . Also the husband and wife must be willing to pass one week out of each month without having sex .
For example , suppose your period begins on the 5th of may then count that as day 1 and circle it . Then count 10 days , starting with the 10th day put a line under the next 8 days . During these 8 fertile days , do not have sexual relationship
Now suppose your next period begins on the first of June , on your calender or chat circle 1 . Once again count off 10 days and underline the following 8 days in which you will not have sex contact
If a woman and her husband carefully observe this . it is possible that they will go for years without having another child .


(1) Is birth control safe ?.
more often than not those who are against birth control for religious or political reasons try to scare women by talking about the risks . Some methods do have certain risks , but the important thing all women should know is that birth control is safer than pregnancy , especially amoungs the gouths and mothers who has had many children . The risk of serious illness or death resulting from pregnancy is many times greater than the risks involved in using any of the common mothods of birth control .

(2) Is it dangerous to take oral contraceptive ?

Like all other medicine , birth control pills occasionally cause serious problems in certain persons . The most serious problem related to the pills are blood clot in the heart , lungs or brain . This occurs most often in women who smoke especially if they are above 35 years of age .
Although it is rare , but if a woman gets pregnant , while taking the pill , she should immediately stop taking it because it can harm the developing baby . Death related to the taking of the pill is also rare .

(3) Who should not take birth control pills ?.
(a) A woman whose period is late who thinks that she might be pregnant .

(b) Deep or steady pains in one leg or hip which might be caused by inflamed veins .

(c) A woman who has had any sign of stroke , liver problem , cirrhosis or hepatitis .

(d) If you have cancer of the or womb do not use oral contraceptive . Also a woman who suffer from heart disease , high blood presure and urinary tract infection with swelling of the feet should not take oral contraceptive .

Is it true that birth control pills cause cancer ?

No . Though if cancer of the breast or womb exists , the taking of the pills may make the tumor grow faster .

Can wa woman have children again if she stops taking the pills ? .

Yes , but sometimes there may br a delay of a month or two before she can get pregnant .


It is estimated that throughout the world , more than 100 million babies are born every year .
The cost of having babies varies and it depends on the length of time in the hospital , the amount of physician’s fees and the amount of money spent on child’s clothes and other necessities.
With the improved health system, maternal death rate has been drastically reduced . Though the fear still lingers . The only remaining basis for dreading child birth today is the pains and discomfort associated with it which is more pronounced with the birth of first child . Mothers generally forget these pains once the baby is placed in their arms .
It is always advisable for mothers to have their babies in hospitals where necessary facilities are available , such as blood tranfusion and other emergency that may develop .


Usually, mother approching labour notices a settling down of the child within her body . This change is caused by the child’s head moving into the first part of the birth canal .
As the time approches for delivery you will notice an increasing number of contractions at the muscles of the uterus . When it is time for you to go to hospital for delivery , the contraction of the uterus which comes at this time occur quite rhythmically at fifteen ninutes interval . Then ten minutes , eight minutes and it becomes more forceful as the contraction of the uterine muscles forces the child’s head farther into the birth canal . At this stage you will notice the passage from your vigina of a mass of mucus tinged with blood . This is a normal occurance which indicates that the cervix of your uterus has begun to stretch so as to make way for the passage of the baby’s head .
This will be followed by a sudden gush of clear fluid from the vigina . This means that the membrane surrounding the baby have broken allowing the escape of part of the amniotic fluid . It is also very normal . This passage of clear fluid is called the breaking of the bag of waters .
You should not eat solid food as soon as labour begins for undigested food could interfere with some delivery processes . You should take on fluids like water , fruit juice , clear soup or lipton tea . Now this the time to go to hospital . Once an expectant arrives at the hospital , preparations to make delivery easier and safer are carried out by the nurse . The patient is given an enema to help remove any facal materials in the terminals part of the colon and in the rectum for smooth passage of the baby’s head and body . The skin adjacent to the birth canal is smoothly shaved to enable the nurse apply disinfectant to prevent contermination .


In the frist stage of labour, the cervix and the virgina stretches surfficiently to form the birth canal . This stretching is painful with each contraction of the uterine muscles , the fetus is forced a little farther downwards through the birth canal .
The second stage consist of the expulsion of the baby . The child’s head first passes through the birth canal Once the head is delivered , the shoulder and other parts of the body will follow .
The third stage of delivery consist of the expulsion of the placenta and other tissues . These remaining ones pass more easily through the birth canal since they are smaller than the head and shoulder of the baby . Once the placenta seperates from the uterus the blood vessels which have supplied the placenta are broken and this causes blood to flow . Care is taken to avoid much lose of blood after delivery .


The passing on of life from parents to child is a great privilage given to man and woman . Parents are always happy that his child is like himself . The parents influence on thr chilf both by words and example does much to determine what the child’s intellect and character will be .
The actual beginning of life dates back nine months before birth to the occasion when fathre and mother shared in contributing their sex cells which as they combine provided the elements from which a new human life is formed . The combination of these biological elements and it’s growth in the uterus of the female is called concrption .


Sex cells has just one function to perform , that is by union with a sex cell from the partner , the spark of life from generation to generation is achieved .
male sex cells are produced in the testes . During childhood immature male sec cells are present in the testes , but at early manhood (early teens) , these sex cells become mature enough to enable him become a father . The testes remain active in producing sex cells throughout the year of man’s life .
It takes only one sex cell at a time of conception to initiate the life of a child .
In the case of a girl , the life forming tissue is built into the ovaries , a small gland located one at the right and one on the left within the lower cavity of the abdomen.
During childhood these immature female sex cells remain dormant and as a girl approches womanhood , changes occur each month in the ovary.
The sex cells compete with each other for a chance to arrive at full maturity and be librated from the ovary . Only one out of the several cells is released during a perticular month . This one sex cell as it reaches full maturity , is located within the blister like structure on the ovary’s surface . At the right time it breakes open and the cell it contain escapes into the abdominal cavity . The female sex cell moves through the oviduct towards the uterus . As it passes through the oviduct , it becomes available for union with male sex cell if sexual intercourse has occured at this time . If it combines with a male sex cell so that a new life is begun , this is called CONCEPTION and the combined cell moves slowly and lodges in the uterus where in nine months developes into full term baby ……


The begining of life , the passing on of life from parents to child is a privilege given to man and woman . Parents are always happy that his child is like himself . Parent’s influence on the child both by words and example does much to determine what the childs intellect and character will be
The actual begining of life dates back nine months before birfh to the occation when father and mother shared in contributing their sex cells which as they combine provided the elements from which a new life is formed . The combination of these biological elements and it’s growth in the uterus of the female is called conception .


Know your health

Is it true that semen poison the mother’s milk ?.
Not true, however, the costom of not having sex as long as the baby continues to breast feed does protect the baby making sure the mother does not get pregnant again too soon .

Is it true that traditional breast feeding is better than modern bottle feeding ?

Breast milk is better food and also helps protect the baby against infection . The yellow coloured milk (colostrum) that comes out first is especially good for the baby

What food should women avoid during pregnancy and in the first few weeks after childbirth ?

During pregnancy and in the week following child birth, women should not avoid any nutritious food. Instead they should eat plenty of fruit , vegetable , meat , milk, egg , whole grains and beans
The mother should bathe in the first few days after giving birth. Bathing is not harmful following child birth . Women who let many days pass without bathjng may get infection that will make their skin unhealthy and their baby sick . Sometimes a mother develops fever and infection after childbirth because the midwife was not careful enough to keep every thing clean or because she puts her hand inside the
Chills or fever
Headache or low back pain
Pain in the belly
Foul smelling or blood discharge from the virgina

Antibiotics are needed urgently. Get medical help or get a health centre where regular injection can be given .
The best to have are :
Ampicillin 500mg 4 times daily , if possible with kanamycin 2 times a day
Or crystalline penicillin 600mg ( 1 million units ) 4 times a day with streptomycin 1gm daily

Is it true that some babies are born to die ?

No, but some chjldren are born with weakness of the blood which often leads to early death . This is called sickle cell deseas . This is passed on from the parents, eventhough neither of the parents msy be aware of it . They carry the sickle cell tendency or trait in their
own blood . The child may appear quit normal for the first six months but certain signs may begin to appear.
Attacks of fever and crying : The child becomes paler and may show yellow colour in eyes (jaundice )
The feet and fingers may show swelling which last for one or two weeks, then gets better
The belly may become bigger and feel hard at the top due to an enlarged spleen and liver
By the age of two years the shape of the head may begin to show bony bumps at the corners of the skull . This is called “bossing ”
The child seems to be delicate and there are frequent attacks of maleria , cough, diarrhea and other infections
From time to time the child has sickle cell crisis brought about by an attack of maleria and some other infections
The growth occurs more slowly than in other children
The anemia suddenly becomes much worse and the swelling on bones may begin to discharge purs .This may even lead to death .

There is no way to change the weakness in the blood cells, but the child can be protected from those things that tend to cause trouble and there should be regular monthly visits to the health worker for checkup and medicines
The child should always have regular anti – malerial drugs for suppression of the disease . Usually pyrimethamine or chloroquine and to these should be added a daily dose of folic acid to help build up the blood .
The child should be imunized to protect against measles, whooping cough and TB by having the injection at ealiest recomendation. Treat symptoms such ad fever , cough , diarrhe , passing urine too often or pains every where in the belly , legs or arms . Give plenty of water to drink and acetaminophen (paracetamol) for pains in the bones . Avoid exposure to cold and keep warm with blankets at night when necessary .

Know your health

Questions and answers on some folk beliefs and home remedies.

Is it true that when the soft sport on top of a baby’s head sinks inward, this means the baby will die of diarrhea unless he gets special treatment ?

This is true , the soft sport sinks because the baby has lost too much liquid, unless he gets more liquid soon, he may die .
Most children who die from diarrhea die because they do not have enough water left in their body. This lack of water is called dehydration.
Dehydration results when the body loses more water than it takes in . This can happen with severe diarrhea, especially when there is vomiting as well . It can also happen in very serious illness .
People of age can become dehydrated but it’s most prevalent and more dengerous in small children
It is important that everyone especially mothers know the sign of dehydration to prevent and treat it .
Thirst is often the first sign of dehydration
Sudden weight loss
Dry mouth
Little or urine. the urine is dark and yellow
Sagging in of the soft sport in the infants head
very severe dehydration may cause weak pulse, fast deep breathing , fever and floppy muscles , coma and death
At the earliest sign , act quickly and do not wait

This site covering a broad spectrum of life , health and medical topics is born out of passion and love for good health and happy life .
It is a site dedicated to everyone who values quality living and for medical students as a companion wherever they are as long as they are with their mobile phones, laptop or pc .
It is meant to turn your phone , laptop or pc into a medical guide to certain common problems related to life and health without the stress of searching through volumes of books which may not be available at hand .
it contains carefuly selected topics which might interest anyone . comments are welcomed as well as sharing in some topics of great importance .
Sickness dont just happen, even accidents and injury can often be prevented. many casualties amongs children could be averted if parents would poison proof their homes . Heeding sensible advice on how to keep well and prevent sickness is a wisdom . The possibility of sickness and injury must be faced realistically and inteligently . The more one knows about health and how to maintain it and abbout the body and how to keep it functioning at maximum potential , thr richer, happier and more useful lige will be . This basic observation accents much of the contents of this site . Others is on what to do in case illness or accident should strick, with due emphasis on personal role and physicians in preventive as well as curative medicines .
Be always there for health is wealth ! ! ! ” “